نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روان‌شناسی، گروه روان‌شناسی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی حکمت رضوی و استادیار گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه خیام، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی حکمت رضوی، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه خیام، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

تحقیقاتی که در رابطه با تأثیر ویژگی‌های شخصیتی بر عملکرد شغلی انجام شده، عمدتاً براساس تحلیل همبستگی یا رگرسیون بوده و تغییرات عملکرد شغلی براساس هر مؤلفه از شخصیت را تبیین کرده است. هدف از این تحقیق ارائه مدلی است که بتواند نقش عوامل شخصیتی را در عملکرد شغلی تبیین کند و صرفاً متکی بر داده‌های جمع‌آوری‌شده از شاغلین نباشد. این روش وزن تأثیر هر عامل را بر عملکرد شغلی بر اساس نظر خبره تبیین می‌کند. خبره با استفاده از مقایسه‌های زوجی، ترجیح هر عامل شخصیتی را بر دیگری بیان می‌کند؛ سپس با روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی وزن هر عامل مشخص می‌شود. با همین روش وزن شخصیت در مقایسه با تخصص و تجربه تعیین می‌گردد. این روش برای کارکنان دانشگاه خیام و در سه بخش امور دانشجویی، امور مالی و اداره آموزش انجام شد. برای آزمون مدل، معاونان آموزشی، مالی و دانشجویی به‌عنوان خبره انتخاب شدند. با استفاده از مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی و نرم‌افزار Choice Expert وزن هر عامل در عملکرد محاسبه شد. وزن‌های محاسبه‌شده در نرم‌افزار با توجه به نرخ ناسازگاری اندک، قابل قبول بود. در اداره آموزش وزن‌های مسئولیت‌پذیری 0.51، موافق بودن 0.21 تمایل به تجربیات جدید 0.04‌، برون‌گرایی 0.05، روان‌رنجوری 0.16؛ در امور مالی، مسئولیت‌پذیری 0.62 موافق بودن 0.20، تمایل به تجربیات جدید 0.10، برون‌گرایی 0.05 و روان‌رنجوری 0.03 و در امور دانشجویی مسئولیت‌پذیری 0.52، موافق بودن  0.14، تمایل به تجربیات جدید 0.24 برون‌گرایی 0.04 و روان‌رنجوری 0.06 به‌دست‌آمد که در هر سه شغل بررسی‌شده، مسئولیت‌پذیری بیشترین نقش را در تبیین عملکرد نشان داد. عملکرد محاسبه‌شده با معادلات توسعه داده‌شده توسط مدل با عملکرد شغلی واقعی براساس آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن همبستگی معنی‌داری نشان داد (p <0.05).در مجموع، علاوه بر روش رگرسیون می‌توان از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی برای تبیین وزن عوامل شخصیتی در عملکرد شغلی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Prediction of Job Performance throgh Weighted Personality Traits: Hierarchical analysis Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Hashemian Bpjnord 1
  • Masoud Moghaddas Zadeh Bazzaz 2
  • Fateme Alidoosti 3

1 MA Student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Hekmat Razvi Institute & Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, Khayyam University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Hekmat Razvi Institute, Mashhad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Khayyam University, Mashhad, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Research regarding the influence of personality traits on job performance has been largely based on correlation analysis and has explained job performance changes based on each personality trait. If job assignment is done in such a way that the dispersion of one personality factor is low, performance changes are largely explained by other factors, while that factor may play an important role. The purpose of this study was to develop a model that can explain the role of personality factors in job performance and not only rely on data collected from employees.
 
Method
Analytical Hierarchy Process explains the effect of each factor on performance based on expert opinion. The expert via pairwise comparisons expresses the preference of each personality factor over others, that is the comparison of each factor to another pairwise. The weight of each factor is then determined by hierarchical analysis. In the same way, the role of personality is determined in comparison with expertise and experience. Thus, an equation for job performance is developed taking into account personality traits. This procedure was performed for the employees of Khayyam University. To test the model, education, financial, and student departments vice presidents were selected as experts. Using the hierarchical analysis model and Expert Choice software, the weight of each factor regarding the job performance was calculated.
 
Results
The weights calculated by using software were acceptable due to the low incompatibility rate. In the education office, weights of responsibility, 0.51, agreeableness, 0.21, openness to experience, 0.04, extraversion 0.05, neuroticism, 0.16; in finance department, responsibility, 0.62, agreeableness, 0.20, openness to experience, 0.10, extraversion 0.05, and neuroticism 0.03, and in student affairs office, responsibility, 0.52, agreeableness, 0.14, openness to experience, 0.24, extraversion 0.04 and neuroticism, 0.06, were obtained in all three studied departments. Responsibility showed the greatest role in explaining job performance. The performance calculated with the equations developed by the model showed a significant correlation with the actual job performance based on the Spearman correlation test. In other words, the results of the neo-test and their placement in the equations led to job performance prediction that was correlated with actual performance, which means that the model is validated.
 
Discussion
In addition to the regression method, the hierarchical analysis method can be used to explain the role of personality factors regarding job performance. In this study, the weight of the effect of personality factors on performance was calculated by hierarchical analysis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Analytical Hierarchy Process
  • performance
  • Personality traits
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