همکاری با انجمن روان‌شناسی صنعتی و سازمانی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران‌

3 دانشیار گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

5 استادیار گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد مسجدسلیمان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مسجدسلیمان، ایران

10.22055/jiops.2023.44574.1370

چکیده

زنان بعد از شکستن سقف شیشه‌ای و قرار گرفتن در موقعیت‌های رهبری با پدیده‌ای به‌نام صخره شیشه‌ای‌ مواجه می‌شوند که ناشی از تلاقی عوامل ساختاری و روان‌شناختی-اجتماعی بوده که یک مدیریت متزلزل و ناامن را برای آنان سبب می­شود. هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی عوامل، مؤلفه­ها و شاخص­های پایداری شغلی زنان در سطوح مدیریتی و به‌ تبع آن ارائه یک الگوی مفهومی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه افراد صاحب‌نظر در حوزه مدیریت و زنان بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و اطلاعات‌محور، تعداد 12 نفر از این افراد به‌‌عنوان مشارکت‌کننده انتخاب شدند. برای انجام این پژوهش علاوه بر مطالعه اسنادی و بررسی پیشینه پژوهش جهت شناسایی عوامل پایداری شغلی زنان در سطوح مدیریتی، از تکنیک دلفی فازی جهت پالایش عوامل و شاخص‌ها بهره گرفته شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که عوامل؛ ارزیابی و نظارت بر عملکرد مدیران فارغ از جنسیت، برابری در توزیع پاداش‌ها و نتایج، دسترسی به منابع اطلاعاتی سازمان، تفویض قدرت به زنان، تعهد یکسان مردان و زنان نسبت ‌به خانواده و توانایی پاسخ به خواسته­های شغلی به‌ترتیب از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر پایداری شغلی زنان در سطوح مدیریتی هستند. مدل پایداری شغلی مدیران زن با 9 عامل و 27 شاخص در سه بعد ساختاری-سازمانی، رفتاری-روان‌شناختی و فرهنگی-اجتماعی طراحی گردیده و به‌عنوان مدلی پیشنهادی جهت پایداری شغلی زنان در سطوح مدیریتی ارائه شده است تا بدین‌وسیله سازمان‌ها بتوانند ضمن تحلیل وضعیت موجود، طرح‌ها و اقدامات لازم را جهت نظام‌سازی و حرکت مستمر در چهارچوب برابری جنسیتی، ساختار سازمانی متناسب با بهبود ارتباطات سازمانی، رشد توانمندی‌های فردی زنان و هم‌ترازسازی جنسیتی ارائه نمایند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که پایداری شغلی مدیران زن از عوامل بهم‌تنیده‌ای تشکیل گردیده که به‌نظر می‌رسد کاهش تمرکز بر جنسیت می‌تواند یک ایدئولوژی سازگارانه در راستای پایداری شغلی زنان در سطوح مدیریتی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sociological Investigation of Women's Job Tenure at Management Levels: A Qualitative Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Mojtahedzadeh 1
  • Gholamreza Memarzadeh Tehran 2
  • Ghanbar Amirnejad 3
  • Foad Makvandi 4
  • Siroos Korahi Moghadam 5

1 PhD Student, Department of Public Administration, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Masjedsoleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjedsoleiman, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
After breaking the glass ceiling and being placed in leadership positions, women face a phenomenon called the glass cliff, which is caused by the intersection of structural and psychological-social factors. This phenomenon causes a shaky and insecure management for them.  The aim of this research was to identify the factors, components and indicators of women's job tenure at managerial levels and accordingly to present a conceptual model.
 
Method
The statistical population of the research included all those who were experts in the field of management and women, and using targeted and information-oriented sampling method, 12 people were selected as participants. In this research, in order to identify the factors of women's job tenure in managerial levels, in addition to document study and research background, fuzzy Delphi technique has been used to refine the factors and indicators. The survey was conducted in three stages and the results of each stage were refined using triangular fuzzy formulas.
 
Results
The results showed that the most important factors of women's job tenure at managerial levels are: evaluating and monitoring the performance of managers regardless of gender, equality in the distribution of rewards and results, access to information resources of the organization, delegation of power to women, equal commitment of men and women. Relative to the family and the ability to respond to job demands. The career stability model of female managers was designed with 9 factors and 27 indicators in three structural-organizational, behavioral-psychological, and cultural-social dimensions, which is presented as a proposed model for women's career stability at managerial levels. In this way, while analyzing the current situation, organizations can present the necessary plans and measures for systematization and continuous movement within the framework of gender equality, organizational structure in order to improve organizational communication, the development of women's individual capabilities, and gender equality.
 
Discussion
In general, the results of this research showed that the job tenure of female managers is made up of interwoven factors, which seems that reducing the focus on gender can be a compatible ideology in line with the job tenure of women in management levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • job tenure
  • women
  • management
  • fuzzy Delphi
Asrar, Z., Ilyas, T., & Aslam, M. F. (2017). Impact of job tenure and managerial position on employee’s organizational commitment: Evidence from NGOs of KPK-Pakistan. Industrial Engineering Letters, 7(2), 59-62. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234685614.pdf
Barak, M. M. (2008). Social psychological perspectives of workforce diversity and inclusion in national and global contexts. Handbook of Human Service Management. Los Angeles: SAGE. https://www.econbiz.de/Record/
Beit Mashal, B., Heidarie, A., Arshadi, N., & Asgary, P. (2020). The causal relationship between neuroticism, job stress, and work-family conflict with turnover intention and life satisfaction through mediating role of job burnout in employees of Karoun Oil and Gas company. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 21(3), 25-39. (Persian) https://doi.org/10.30486/jsrp.2019.584665.1690
Chen, C. F., & Kao, Y. L. (2012). Moderating effects of work engagement and job tenure on burnout–performance among flight attendants. Journal of Air Transport Management, 25, 61-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2012.08.009
Cheng, C. H., & Lin, Y. (2002). Evaluating the best main battle tank using fuzzy decision theory with linguistic criteria evaluation. European Journal of Operational Research, 142(1), 174-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00280-6
Currivan, D. B. (1999). The causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover. Human Resource Management Review, 9(4), 495-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00031-5
Davies-Netzley, S. A. (1998). Women above the glass ceiling: Perceptions on corporate mobility and strategies for success. Gender & Society, 12(3), 339-355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243298012003006
DeConinck, J. B., & Stilwell, C. D. (2004). Incorporating organizational justice, role states, pay satisfaction and supervisor satisfaction in a model of turnover intentions. Journal of Business Research, 57(3), 225-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00289-8
Delavi, M. R., & Ganji, M. (2014). Investigating the effects of ethical leadership on occupational stress and intention to quit among nurses in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences hospitals. Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, 16(1), 121-129. (Persian) http://78.39.35.44/article-1-1740-fa.html
Ely, R. J., Padavic, I., & Thomas, D. A. (2012). Racial diversity, racial asymmetries, and team learning environment: Effects on performance. Organization Studies, 33(3), 341-362. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840611435597
Gaertner, S. (1999). Structural determinants of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in turnover models. Human Resource Management Review, 9(4), 479-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00030-3
García-Sánchez, I. M., Suárez-Fernández, O., & Martínez-Ferrero, J. (2019). Female directors and impression management in sustainability reporting. International Business Review, 28(2), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2018.10.007
Glass, C., & Cook, A. (2016). Leading at the top: Understanding women's challenges above the glass ceiling. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.09.003
Glass, C., & Cook, A. (2020). Pathways to the glass cliff: A risk tax for women and minority leaders?. Social Problems, 67(4), 637-653. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spz045
Habibi, A., & Afridi, S. (2022). Multi-indicator decision-making. Tehran: Naron Publications. (Persian) https://parsmodir.com/book/madm-book.php
Hharandi, A., Parhizgar, M. M., Fazel, A., & Amini, M. (2021). Conceptual model of value co-creation of university with emphasis on fourth and fifth-generation universities using meta-synthesis and Fuzzy Delphi approach. Public Organizations Management, 10(1(37), 103-124. (Persian) https://doi.org/10.30473/ipom.2021.58824.4377
Khajepour, N., Beshlideh, K., & Baharlou, M. (2016). The casual relationship of psychological capital with turnover intention, job burnout and job performance: Mediating role of job stress. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Studies, 2(2), 61-82. (Persian) https://doi.org/10.22055/jiops.2017.17843.1020
Koushazade, A., & Azizabadi, A. (2014). The effect of perceived organizational justice n turnover intention by mediating perceived organizational identification, organizational support, and job satisfaction. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 15(2), 25-36. (Persian) https://jsr-p.isfahan.iau.ir/article_533915.html?lang=en
Kulich, C., Iacoviello, V., & Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (2018). Solving the crisis: When agency is the preferred leadership for implementing change. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(2), 295-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.05.003
Mahoney, C. B., Lea, J., Schumann, P. L., & Jillson, I. A. (2020). Turnover, burnout, and job satisfaction of certified registered nurse anesthetists in the United States: Role of job characteristics and personality. AANA Journal, 88(1), 39-48. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32008617/
Main, B. G., & Gregory‐Smith, I. (2018). Symbolic management and the glass cliff: Evidence from the boardroom careers of female and male directors. British Journal of Management, 29(1), 136-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12208
Martin, A. E., & Phillips, K. W. (2017). What “blindness” to gender differences helps women see and do: Implications for confidence, agency, and action in male-dominated environments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 142, 28-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2017.07.004
Maslach, C., Schaufeli W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job bu rnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Memizadeh, J. (2002). Leaving the service in the organization to investigate its causes, complications and consequences. Management Development, 44(10), 32-38. (Persian) 20101023122032-5.pdf (ensani.ir)
Neck, C. (2015). Disappearing women: Why do women leave senior roles in finance?. Australian Journal of Management, 40(3), 488-510. https://doi.org/10.1177/0312896215578014
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2013). Does longer job tenure help or hinder job performance?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 305-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.012
Niazi, M., Moosavi viae, F., & Mansoriyan Ravandi, F. (2019). The effect of work-family conflict on job burnout: A meta-analysis. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Studies, 5(2), 121-134. (Persian) https://doi.org/10.22055/jiops.2019.28963.1121
Qureshi, S. (2013). The relationship between work motivation, burnout and intention to leave for the top level managers of garment industry (A case study of Indian garment industry). International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(4), 128. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v3i4.4609
Ryan, M. K., Haslam, S. A., Morgenroth, T., Rink, F., Stoker, J., & Peters, K. (2016). Getting on top of the glass cliff: Reviewing a decade of evidence, explanations, and impact. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 446-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.10.008
Sardinha Lima, G. (2019). The challenges of female managers in Ireland. Doctoral dissertation, Dublin, National College of Ireland. gisellesardinhalima.pdf (ncirl.ie)
Yaghi, A. (2018). Glass cliff or glass prison: Think evil-think men in organizational leadership. International Journal of Public Administration, 41(12), 998-1008. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2017.1317800
Zarghamifard, M., & Behboudi, M. R. (2014). The glass cliff phenomenon: Women experiences and challenges in leadership position. Organizational Culture Management, 12(2), 191-211. (Persian) https://doi.org/10.22059/JOMC.2014.51180